A new invention, Organic Chelated Iron 8%
fertilizer stable at pH 1-12 best substitute for
Fe-EDDHA and Fe-EDTA
Dr. Behzad khosropanah, Research Scientist in
Agriculture & fertilizer industry, Canada
Iron deficiency is a limiting factor of plant growth. Iron is present at high quantities in soils, but its availability to plants is usually very low, and therefore iron deficiency is a common problem. Although most of the iron on the earth crust is in the form of Fe3+, the Fe2+ form is physiologically more significant for plants. This form is relatively soluble, but is readily oxidized to Fe3+, which then precipitates. Fe3+ is insoluble in neutral and high pH, making iron unavailable to plants in alkaline and in calcareous soils. Furthermore, in these types of soil, iron readily combines with phosphates, carbonates, calcium, magnesium and hydroxide ions. Plants uptake iron in its oxidized forms, Fe2+ (ferrous form) or Fe3+ (ferric form). Plants use various iron uptake mechanisms. One of these is the chelation mechanism - the plant releases compounds called siderophores which bind iron and enhance its solubility. This mechanism also involves bacteria. Another mechanism involves the release of protons (H+) and reductants by the plant roots, to lower pH levels in root zone. The result is increased iron solubility.In this respect, choice of the form of nitrogen fertilizer is significant. Ammonium nitrogen increases proton release by roots, thus lowering pH and facilitating iron uptake. Nitrate nitrogen enhances the release of hydroxide ions that increase pH in the root zone and counteract efficient iron uptake. New roots and root hairs are more active in iron uptake, therefore it is imperative to maintain a healthy active root system. Any factor interfering with root development interferes with iron uptake. When iron deficiency is identified, it can be treated in the short term by applying a foliar spray of iron, but the best course of action is prevention. Therefore, the grower should identify the real cause of the deficiency and treat it, in order to prevent the problem from occurring in the future. Often, iron deficiency does not indicate insufficient iron supply. It may also be related to various conditions that may affect iron availability. For example: carbonate levels in the soil, salinity, soil moisture, low temperature, concentration of other elements (e.g. competitive microelements, phosphorus, calcium) etc. Evaluating these factors and correcting them can save a great deal of money spent on ineffective and unnecessary iron applications. Iron can be applied as ferrous sulfate or in a chelated form. Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) contains about 20% iron. This fertilizer is inexpensive and is mainly used for foliar spraying. Applied to soil, it is often ineffective, especially in pH above 7.0, because its iron quickly transforms to Fe3+ and precipitates as one of the iron oxides. Iron chelates. Chelates are compounds that stabilize metal ions (in this case - iron) and protect them from oxidation and precipitation. Iron chelates consist of three components Fe3+ ions. A complex, such as EDTA, DTPA, EDDHA, amino acids, humic-fulvic acids, citrate. Sodium (Na+) or ammonium (NH4+) ions. Different chelates hold iron ions in different strengths at different pH levels. They also defer in their susceptibility to iron replacement by competitive ions. For example, at high concentrations, calcium or magnesium ions may replace the chelated metal ion. Fe-EDTA - This iron chelate is stable at pH below 6.0. Above pH of 6.5, nearly 50% of the iron is unavailable. Therefore this chelate is ineffective in alkaline soils. This chelate also has high affinity to calcium, so it is advised not to use it in calcium-rich soils or water. Note that EDTA is a very stable chelate of micro-elements, other than iron, even in high pH levels. Fe-DTPA - this iron chelate is stable in pH levels of up to 7.0, and is not as susceptible to iron replacement by calcium. Fe-EDDHA - this chelate is stable at pH levels as high as 11.0, but it is also the most expensive iron chelate available.
تور سوم گروه پسته استان کرمان-بازدید از شرکت های
مولکول، جنوبگان، نهال طوبی
هشدار: هر گونه استفاده از این مطالب باید با ذکر منبع یا اجازه رسمی نویسنده باشد
بهمت دوستان و عزیزان گروه پسته استان کرمان بازدیدی به تاریخ 9 اردیبهشت از شرکت های مولکول، جنوبگان، نهال طوبی انجام شد. بترتیب ما از خط تولید کودهای محلولپاشی و جامد، صابون و...شرکت جنوبگان انجام دادیم. شرکت جنوبگان یک نام شناخته شده در صنایع تولید کودهای شیمیایی و آلی در ایران است و سابقه طولانی دارد و دفتر مرکزی آن در شهر کرمان است. تاسیس شرکت جنوبگان به سال 1368 برمی گردد و هم اکنون 20 نوع مختلف کودهای مایع و جامد تولید می کند. جنوبگان یک شرکت باسابقه و حرفه ای در تولید کودهای کشاورزی است و از اقصی نقاط ایران مشتری و سفارش دارد. کودهای جنوبگان روی محصولات مختلف زراعی و باغی در جاهای مختلف ایران مورد مصرف دارند. بازدید ما از خط تولید بیانگر سابقه و کیفیت این شرکت در تولید کودهای کشاورزی است. علاوه بر این مسولین و کارشناسان شرکت انسانهایی صادق بودند و دلیل اصلی صداقت و درستی آنها این است که سالهای سال در بازار تولید کودهای کشاورزی هستند و نیستند مثل شرکتهایی که بخواهند ره صد ساله را یک شبه طی بکنند. بهر روی محصولات این شرکت از دید بنده باید بیشتر مد نظر باغداران باشند و حداقل برای تست هم که شده مقداری از محصولات تهیه شود و با سایر محصولات یا برندهای دیگر مقایسه شود از نظر کیفیت و همچنین قیمت. علاوه بر تولید کودهای مختلف ماکرو و میکرو صابونهای محلولپاشی شرکت جنوبگان یکی از قدیمی ترین صابونها یا مویانها در بازار هستند. صابون جنوبگان مویانی است که سابقه خیلی زیادی در مناطق پسته کاری دارد و شاید اولین صابون یا مویانی باشد که در باغات پسته همراه با سموم یا بتنهایی برای کنترل پسیل پسته یا شیره خشک مورد استفاده بوده است. قسمت دوم بازدید ما از شرکت مولکول بود. شرکت مولکول را ما پسته کاران بیشتر بخاطر آزمایشگاه آب، خاک و برگ می شناسیم. برگه های آنالیز برگ، کود و آب شرکت مولکول برای من خیلی آشنا هستند. آزمایشگاههای شرکت مولکول از بهترین و پرسابقه ترین ها در کرمان و کشور هستند. با توجه به اینکه شرکت مولکول آزمایشگاه معتمد سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست است حتما از کیفیت خیلی خوبی برخوردار بوده و الا سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست آن را بعنوان آزمایشگاه معتمد معرفی نمی کرد. طیف آزمایشات مختلف زیست محیطی، کشاورزی، صنعتی و ....بیانگر کیفیت مناسب این آزمایشگاه است. آزمایشگاه شرکت مولکول طیف وسیعی است از آنالیزهای خاک و برگ و آب مناطق مختلف پسته کاری بخصوص در استان کرمان را داراست و از این حیث نیز آرشیوی قوی دارد. در مورد عزیزانی که دنبال خرید کودهای آلی و شیمیایی هستند توصیه می کنم برای مطمن شدن از کیفیت محصولی که می خواهند خریداری کنند ابتدا نمونه ای به آزمایشگاه مولکول یا هر شرکت معتبر دیگری بفرستند تا خدای ناکرده آت و آشغال را بجای کود قالب نکنند. در مورد سنجش کیفیت آب هم آزمایشگاه مولکول می تواند کمک کننده باشد. دوستان برای اطلاعات بیشتر می توانند به سایت شرکت جنوبگان-صنایع شیمیایی کرمان زمین مراجعه کنند. قسمت فاینال تور ما بازدید از شرکت نهال طوبی بود. شرکت تولید نهال طوبی هم شرکتی پرسابقه است و در مورد تولید نهالهای مختلف فعالیت داشته است. چند سالی است که تمرکز شرکت روی تولید و تکثیر نهال پایه آمریکایی یا UCB1 است. تولید نهال پسته یوسی بی وان از طریق کشت بافت یا تیشو کالچر اولین بار بصورت رسمی از سوی شرکت نهال طوبی در ایران انجام شده است. کار کشت بافت در مورد درخت پسته و پایه آمریکایی کار راحتی نیست و عزیزانی که از دور میگن لنگش کن در اشتباه هستند. کار کشت بافت کلا کار بسیار سختی است و سالها زحمت می خواهد و کار راحتی نیست. اگر کار کشت بافت یوسی بی وان کار راحتی بودن الان همه نهالستانهای پسته ایران این کار رو کرده بودند!! محیط های لابراتوری و کشت بافت شرایط بسیار پیچیده و خاصی دارند. شما بتوانید از یک یا توده ای از سلولها یک گیاه جدید تولید کنید کار بسیار دشواری است. با توجه به بررسی هایی که من کردم در بسیاری از دانشگاهها تلاش زیادی در جهت تکثیر پایه آمریکایی پسته انجام داده اند با بودجه و امکانات و دانشجویان ارشد و دکتری و بیشتر این تلاشها با شکست مواجه شده!! مجموعه شرکت نهال طوبی با مجموعه کارشناسان داخلی و مشاوران خارجی، زحمات فراوان و مستمر و صرف هزینه های هنگفت و سالهای متمادی موفق به تولید نهال پسته EBR-1 شده است که همان مونتاژ شده پایه آمریکایی UCB1 است. کاری که شرکت طوبی کرده کاری شگفت انگیز و طاقت فرسایی بوده است. واقعا نمی شود در مورد نهال پایه آمریکایی زود قضاوت کرد حداقل کار این است که بازم بعنوان تست هم که شده مقداری از این نهالها را تهیه کنیم و با نهالهای ایرانی مقایسه کنیم. پایه یو سی بی وان مزایای زیادی دارد من جمله رشد خیلی زیادی که از سال دوم بعد می توان آن را پیوند کرد و این نکته شگفت انگیزی است. برای نهالهای معمولی باید سالها صبر کرد تا گیاه جوان قابلیت پیوند پیدا کند. علاوه بر بحث اقتصادی بودن این پایه بحث مقاومت این پایه نسبت به امراض خاکزی مانند ورتیسیلیوم، نماتدها، گموز و ....نکته بسیار مهمی است. متاسفانه بسیاری از درختان پسته با پایه اهلی یا Vera دچار امراض مختلف قارچی و نماتدها شده اند. من نظرم این است که در مورد پایه یوسی بی وان حداقل زود قضاوت نکنیم تا حداقل موجب دلسردی عزیزان و زحمتکشان مجموعه تولید کننده نشود چون واقعا هدف اصلی گشودن گره ای مهم و بزرگ از پای کشاورزان است. کدام کشاورز است که دوست نداشته باشد درختش سال دوم پیوند بخورد، رشد فوق العاده وباردهی عالی داشته باشد و مقاوم به امراض باشد. با صحبتی که بنده با مسولین شرکت نهال طوبی داشتم مطمن شدم که تولید پایه EBR-1 واقعا سود اقتصادی چندانی در این چند ساله نداشته و صرفا علاقه بوده و اشتغالزایی برای نیروهای متخصص مجموعه که تعداد کمی هم نیستند. اگر ان شالا این پایه بتواند مشکل را حل کند که تا بحال نتایج عینی چنین را نشان می دهند واقعا می توان منتظر تحولی بزرگ در صنعت پسته ایران بود. تقریبا همه باغات تجاری کالیفرنیا از این رقم بعنوان پایه استفاده می کنند و این قطر تنه درختان آمریکا مربوط به رشد فوق العاده این پایه است.
Identification, management of leaffooted
bug crucial in almonds, pistachios
Dennis Pollock, Contributing writer
A pest much more easily heard than seen can cause significant damage to almonds and pistachios. It’s the leaffooted bug, which buzzes like a bumble bee, said Stephanie Rill, a University of California entomology research associate in Kern County. The pest has been more of a problem in harvests that follow warm winters, Rill said. It over-winters in pomegranates, she explained, lays its brownish eggs in a line, and then migrates into almond orchards as adults to feed between March and May. Rill said the pest has an aggregation pheromone, and adults are commonly found in groups. In woodpiles, the pest can be found under bark, in dense tree foliage, and hiding in palm fronds, citrus, and juniper during the winter. In the almond orchard, each female can deposit more than 200 eggs. The eggs hatch but larvae die, Rill said. In the summer and fall, the pest moves to other crops including pistachios. Leaffooted bug has piercing and sucking mouthparts used as a straw. It is primarily a seed feeder causing damage in pistachios, almonds, juniper berries, and others. The proboscis can penetrate a pistachio shell late in the season even when it has hardened. In almonds, penetration of the hull causes gummosis, leaving the nut on the tree to develop until harvest. But if there is penetration to the kernel, nut abortion may occur. There’s a positive side to that, Rill noted, inasmuch damaged nuts do not make it to the huller. But the down side is a reduction in yield. And if a kernel becomes damaged but remains on the tree, it likely will be off-graded as inedible at harvest. Factors influencing susceptibility to quality damage include varietal differences. Rill found Fritz and Sonora as the most susceptible almond varieties on that count. As for yield damage, the most susceptible include Fritz, Aldrich, Livingston, and Sonora. She said shell hardness is not an indicator of susceptibility, but hull thickness is. When monitoring for the pest, Rill said it’s wise to check for gummosis and to cut a cross section of the nut to see if probing was involved. Also, it’s good to look for nut drop. She said the gummosis left by the leaffooted bug resembles bacterial spot, but can be distinguished from that. The bacterial spot is orange or reddish while the leaffooted bug leaves clear spots. A biological control, which parasitizes eggs, is effective in the summer, but has no benefit against over-wintering adults that migrate to almonds. Insecticides must contact the pest. Rill said Lorsban is excellent on contact, but has a residual of only one week, while pyrethroids including Brigade and Warrior II are excellent on contact and have a residual of more than four weeks. She said Abameticin, Agri-Mek, and others are excellent on contact, but have no residual activity. Belay, Bexar, Sivanto, Beleaf, Exirel, and Sequoia have some contact activity but no residual activity. Discussing monitoring and management in pistachios, Kris Tollerup, an integrated pest management advisor at the Kearney Ag Center, described the leaffooted bug as a “beast” that is difficult to kill and potentially a pest in several San Joaquin Valley crops. He said researchers are trying to find a “plant volatile” that would act as pheromone to draw the pests, which would make monitoring easier. Tollerup also pondered whether treating overwintering aggregations could protect neighboring host crops and whether colder temperatures could reduce populations. He said it appears that temperatures of 26 or 27 degrees for hours can significantly reduce populations. He said leaffooted bug can be distinguished from stink bugs, which lay eggs in groups that are barrel-shaped. While stink bugs have two generations per year, the leaffooted bug has three over-lapping generations per year and possibly a fourth. Its eggs are laid in a tube-shaped group. The damage to pistachios comes in late May and early June and can include lesions, abortion of kernels, and kernel necrosis. Tollerup recommends sampling from late April to mid-July. He said adults are hard to spot because they quickly fly away if the top branches of trees are tapped. “But you can see their silhouettes as they fly away,” he said.
Proposed pistachio marketing agreement to
help fund UC variety development
Greg Northcutt, Contributing Writer
It’s happened all too frequently to California pistachio grower Tom Coleman. Walking in his Fresno County orchards on an early spring morning, he discovers dozens of three-five-year-old trees with two-foot-long sticks clipped off the ends of branches – the tell-tale sign of thieves who have made off with budwood to start their own orchards. Based on reports from other growers, Coleman says his aren’t the only trees targeted this way. In fact, such incidences have been increasing over the last few years in response to the brisk demand for new trees to capitalize on the booming market for pistachio nuts, he adds. The buds from the pilfered sticks are wrapped in damp towels and kept on ice to keep the wood fresh for no more than a day or two. The buds are carved out and slid into the bark of rootstock to form a new pistachio tree. Done properly, removal of the budwood doesn’t damage the parent tree. In fact, this procedure is used commonly by commercial budders. However, obtaining budwood without permission is not only wrong but it’s actually harming the pistachio industry. It reduces funding for public research and development of improved pistachio varieties, says Coleman, who also serves as chairman of the California Pistachio Research Board (CPRB). Almost all new commercial pistachio acreage in the U.S. is grown from UCB#1 seed or rootstock. This hybrid of Pistacia atlantica (female) X Pistacia integerrima (male) was developed by UC researchers for resistance to Verticillium wilt and vigorous growth. Licensing fees from the sale of the seed or rootstock of this hybrid, as well as the budwood of the UC-developed varieties - Golden Hills (female), Lost Hills (female) and Randy (male), help support the work of the university’s researchers and breeders in producing, testing, and distributing disease-tested plant propagation material, including pistachio cultivars. Pistachio trees produced by commercial nurseries from tissues or clones are not subject to the University of California licensing fee. The price of UCB#1 seed purchased under license from UC Foundation Plant Services is $1 per seed. The price for UCB#1, Golden Hills, Lost Hills, and Randy budwood is $50 for a budwood stick (about 6 inches long) with no less than four buds each. Grafting budwood of Golden Hills, Lost Hills, and Randy is also subject to a licensing fee of $1 per bud. Coleman, who farms several thousand acres of pistachio trees, prefers to start his orchards from seed. “I think growing a tree from seed rather than planting a pre-budded tree produces the most vigorous tree,” says Coleman. He buys the UCB#1 seed from the FPS, paying the $1 dollar per seed licensing fee. After the seed is planted and grown to about 18-inches in height at several nurseries, Coleman plants the trees in his fields. Once five-feet tall, he hires a commercial budder to graft them with buds from wood removed from Coleman’s blocks of Golden Hills and Randy trees. In addition to paying for these budding services, Coleman pays $1 per bud to the budder who then pays the licensing fee for the buds to the University of California. Over the last few years, however, the demand for UCB#1 seed has far outpaced the supply, says Coleman. As a result, growers typically receive only a fraction of the amount of the seed they order from FPS. Coleman says this shortfall has contributed to the increased number of unlicensed growers. Last year, Coleman paid $250,000 for the UCB#1 seed purchased from FPS. “It’s not fair for growers like me who pay for this UCB#1 seed or budwood when others don’t. And, it’s not fair to the industry.” Coleman can understand why some growers may be tempted to avoid paying the licensing fee. However with the industry’s rapid growth in recent years, some newer growers may not be aware of the licensing fee rules. One grower even asked me if the fee for budwood was a requirement or a donation,” says Coleman. This is why Coleman and a small group of other pistachio industry leaders are proposing a California marketing agreement designed to encourage more growers to pay the licensing fees to help fund UC’s development of improved varieties. Coleman says, “A marketing agreement is a way to provide legal standing for this proposed program.” The CPRB, for example, is a California state marketing order, authorized in December 2007 through a grower referendum. The order operates under the oversight of the California Department of Food and Agriculture. The CPRB uses mandatory assessments, paid by pistachio growers, to fund research on pistachio propagation, production, harvesting, handling, and preparation for market, and to provide educational opportunities and materials for pistachio growers. The marketing agreement Coleman and his colleagues propose would be similar to current marketing orders for California’s citrus, grape, and strawberry industries. These orders help control quality and disease resistance of plant parent material except that the agreements are voluntary but binding on the signatories. Pistachio nurseries and commercial budders participating in the proposed pistachio marketing order would agree to use only UC-licensed rootstock and budwood and budwood with the exception of their own proprietary varieties. “I could see members of this agreement assessing themselves a relatively small fee to pay for reviewing the records of each other to check for compliance with the UC licensing program,” Coleman says. A listing of these licensed growers and budders would be available to the public. “This way any grower buying foundation material from an unlicensed producer would risk buying seed, rootstock, or budwood that might not meet the quality and disease resistance standards of those developed by the University of California,” Coleman explains. His group plans to put the proposed marketing agreement to a vote of pistachio nurseries and budders this fall.
Wise nitrogen management key to
pistachio tree health, productivity
Greg Northcutt, Contributing writer
A pistachio tree requires far more supplemental nitrogen (N) than any other single nutrient to maintain proper health and productivity. For example, a thousand pounds of mature pistachio nuts, including the hulls, contain about 28 pounds of nitrogen. However, keeping a tree supplied with the right amount of nitrogen is more complicated than simply replacing the N removed when the nuts are harvested, says Craig Kallsen, reports University of California Cooperative Extension farm advisor for Kern County in his January 2016 Kern Pistachio Notes newsletter. He points out that fertilizing with N or other required elements don’t feed or fatten up a plant with the nutrients. Instead, the nutrients enable the plant to use the energy in carbohydrate, the food produced by photosynthesis, to maintain the photosynthetic and respiration systems, grow the plant, and produce reproductive structures including pistachio nuts. Not all N applied as fertilizer to the tree produces the nut crop. Some is directed to growing new leaves and shoots. And some of it never makes its way into the tree. Soil-applied N may be tied up in organic matter or lost through denitrification by soil-borne organisms. Nitrogen in the soil can also be lost in surface runoff or washed out of the soil profile through leaching, especially if leaching is used to reduce soil salinity levels. If we progressively fail to replace fertilizer elements removed at harvest, used in tree growth, and otherwise lost during crop production, then the soil is being depleted and is becoming less productive,” Kallsen explains. At the same time, the tree may be getting some N from other sources other than fertilizer applications. This can include nitrogen-containing molecules from vehicle exhaust, other human-related activities, and electric storms washed out of the atmosphere in rain. N in irrigation water can reduce the need for annual N fertilizer requirements on a pound for pound basis, Kallsen adds. Allowing fallen leaves and shredded pruning to decay in the orchard can also provide trees with N. Another factor complicating N fertilizer needs is the alternate-bearing habit of pistachio trees, he notes. Typically, but not always, a high yielding on-year is followed by a lower-yielding off-year. So, should a grower increase the amount of N applied during the on-year and reduce during the off-year? Research suggests that fertilizing the pistachio crop on a two-year basis, as opposed to a single-year basis, may have merit, says Kallsen. In this study, the total N demand of the trees was very similar between the on- and off-years. During the on-year, 85 percent of the total N uptake went to the nuts. But, the researcher found that 67 percent of the N went to the canopy during the off-year. These data suggest that in the off-year the tree is growing the leaf canopy for light capture and associated carbohydrate production and storing N that is utilized for nut production during the on-year,” Kallsen says. The application of similar quantities of N during the on and off-years, in combination with maintaining more manageable tree size through pruning, may help mitigate large swings in alternate bearing. To reduce N pollution from fertilizer applications, the goal is to apply enough N to produce the maximum crop possible under existing environmental limitations, while minimizing the amount of residual N remaining in the soil after leaf drop in the fall, Kallsen notes. This is especially important in salty soils where extensive salt leaching will occur during the winter or in areas with high winter and spring rainfall, There is no point in providing more fertilizer than is necessary for the crop to maintain optimal light interception, and its eventual conversion into energy by the leaf canopy, per unit of ground area,” he says. Kallsen recommends testing soil N level in the spring to help estimate how much of the nutrient is available in the soil rooting profile for the upcoming season. Some of this can be counted toward the annual N fertilizer requirement. If leaf testing in August reveals high N levels, this usually suggests high N storage in the tree plus high residual N levels in the soil. Both of these conditions suggest that N fertilization rates can probably be reduced significantly the following year without danger of reducing yields,” says Kallsen. Good record keeping can greatly assist the grower in adjusting current N applications based on historical N fertilization, leaf and soil N levels, and crop yields. If post-harvest soil-N levels are increasing year over year, and yields are optimal, N fertilization rates can probably be reduced.
Research maximizing Navel orangeworm management in
There are three legs to the stool where control of the Navel orangeworm sits, says Brad Higbee, director of entomology research for Wonderful Orchards. And one of those legs has grown shakier over time the use of a particular class of prized chemicals that was highly effective and relatively inexpensive. Higbee and David Haviland, University of California integrated pest management advisor in Kern County, discussed the challenges to managing pyrethroid use against the Navel orangeworm (NOW) and other pests. Both also talked of another leg of the stool – “Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation,” Haviland said. And Higbee emphasized the third leg, another weapon in his arsenal as he seeks to keep NOW at bay: mating disruption. The men pointed out that repeated pyrethroid use has fostered resistance in pests, and both advocated making certain that different classes of pesticides are used. Higbee said, “A 2015 field was treated with Warrior and at most we killed 30 percent (of adults exposed to residue). Five or six years ago, we would have killed all of them. We’re seeing a reduction in the efficacy of pyrethroid products.” He said permethrin has little impact on NOW, and pyrethroid tank mixes are now required. Higbee believes in “loading up on residues” close to harvest. In discussing IPM and pyrethroids, Haviland said they still have some efficacy and their price remains low. “I’m not here to say, ‘Don’t use pyrethroids.’ Just don’t use them more than necessary. Don’t spray if you don’t have to.” When spraying, he adds, use a high label rate “enough to kill.” Haviland said the most important spray timing – in order of importance – is at hull spray, after hull split, and at early split. He recommends monitoring for damage, taking into account how many nuts are expected to fall off naturally and whether beneficials including phytocoris – “which can also be a bad guy” – pose a problem. If you can preserve the phytocoris, particularly during the early May window, it may be best, so it can eat the eggs of NOW’s first generation, Haviland says. Higbee said application of pesticides can be challenged by the fact “intimate contact with larvae and eggs” is required. He said they are only on the hull, and adequate coverage is difficult to achieve. Reaching nuts higher in the tree is a challenge. Higbee said the tolerance for damage from NOW has become lower and lower. “My marching orders are 1 percent or less.” “It makes sense to do as much as you can,” Higbee said. But he said it is especially hard to predict risk of NOW damage in pistachios where pest populations tend to be higher than in almonds. “We’ve looked at no sanitation and full sanitation,” he said. “Full always lowers damage. But we don’t know if we do nothing, how much damage we will have.” He said mummies on the ground pose the greatest risk, and that mowing and disking are equally good at destroying mummies. Sweeping the orchard floor also helps. Higbee says the NOW moth is highly mobile and can travel more than half a mile per night. Enlisting help from neighbors in treatment helps bolster effectiveness. As pistachio prices have risen in recent years, he says it could pencil out to use more costly chemicals and other approaches and be worthwhile as growers shoot for damage of 1 percent or less of the crop. The cost per acre, Higbee says, can amount to $5 to $10 (per acre) for pyrethroids, $40 to $50/acre for new chemistries, and $120/acre for mating disruptions. And growers also benefit from processor incentives to achieve low damage levels. At the same time that some earlier popular pyrethroids have shrunk in usage in recent years, the nut acreage where mating disruption is used has risen. In 2013, this amounted to 32,000 acres using NOW mating disruption. It grew to 60,000 in 2014, and to an estimated 120,000 acres in 2015. Higbee expects it will reach 200,000 acres this year – in both almonds and pistachios. The worldwide registration for mating disruption products rose dramatically from 1978-2008. When Higbee first started using a sex pheromone for mating disruption in pistachios, he said, “I wasn’t crazy about it. It doesn’t work well in high populations, and populations were higher in pistachios than in almonds. But we did it and it worked well.” Higbee is also part of an industry task force looking at a way to add a fourth leg to the stool of NOW control. This leg includes a pilot project in the experimental stage that would draw on facilities previously used to rear, sterilize, and release massive numbers of sterile pink bollworm moths. This project seeks the release of millions of sterilized NOW moths, and would likewise work best when populations of the sterile pest are low. Meanwhile, Higbee touts successes of mating disruption, saying it can help reduce NOW damage “generally by 50 percent.” “The best fit currently is in orchards where current insecticide programs are not sufficient,” he said. “It’s most effective when added to an existing insecticide program.” In some cases, it can reduce the number of sprays needed. Pheromones can be provided in micro-capsules, hand applied, or in timed-released puffers. The capsules are applied at between 10-100 per acre. Hand-applied passive release devices are applied at 100-200 per acre. Puffers are used at 1-2 per acre
Gill’s mealybug in pistachio, does the spray pay
To spray or not - that’s a question that often plagues pistachio growers faced with pests including Gill’s mealybug, which may or may not wreak economic havoc on their crop. And that’s where David Haviland, University of California integrated pest management advisor for Kern County, comes in. Haviland has published a paper with the Journal of Economic Entomology which presents a formula for determining the economic injury level that might or might not be tolerated by a grower. The paper is based on several factors, including the treatment cost, the expected price per pound for the crop, and the anticipated yield. It’s a matter of “does the spray pay?” Haviland said. It could be that if an infestation is just beginning and a grower is trying to prevent spread, it might be best to be more aggressive, he adds. The economic injury level formula adds the cost per acre for control with the anticipated yield in pounds per acre and the anticipated price, and then divides it by 0.094. The result will be the economic injury level per cluster in May. As the cost goes up and the price and yield drops, there may be a greater tolerance for the number of mealybugs per cluster. Haviland says a higher payment per pound of around $4 means the threshold for treating the pest “is really low.” The ideal treatment timing is around June 1, or 10 days or so earlier when temperatures are higher. Haviland said adult females emerge in late April or May, “and that’s when you monitor the number of mealybugs per cluster.” They can be found when the old wood connects with new growth - basically where the bud was. Among the pesticides effective on the pest are Centaur (Buprofezin), Movento (Spirotetramat), Assail (Acetamiprid), and Admire (Imidacloprid). Haviland said Admire is not as effective as the others but it is inexpensive and has no application costs when used in drip systems. Admire, he says, might not be the best choice in a bad infestation, but if the level is creeping back it can be used for suppression. Haviland said Centaur, Assail, and Movento are all “extremely good.” Another good product he shared is Closer, which has been re-named Sequoia, a Dow AgroSciences product where the registration was pulled. Dow is seeking product re-registration. Movento is costly, Haviland said, but researchers have learned it can be used at lower rates, six ounces rather than nine ounces, shaving one-third off the cost. The pest was introduced into Tulare County in the mid-to-late 1990s. It spread slowly initially, reaching 2,000 acres in 2004 in at least five counties and was also found in almonds and wine grapes. By 2005, 3,000 acres were infested. There were 6,000 aces infested by 2007. And pesticide reports indicate treatment on 80,000 acres in California by 2013. “Perhaps 100,000 acres have mealybug today,” Haviland said. Gill’s mealybugs are roughly ½ to 1/5 inch in length and pinkish grey in color. The pest is often covered with white wax secreted from a pore. “They muck up the clusters,” Haviland said. He explained that they “intercept carbohydrates intended for kernel development.” Smaller kernels mean less weight and less splitting. “The small kernel is never big enough to push them open,” Haviland said, “and the biggest problem is closed shell nuts.” The pest can cause shell staining and an increase in adhering hulls with later harvests. But it has no association with aflatoxin. Pistachio growers should be cautious not to confuse Gill’s mealybug with grape mealybug. Grape mealybug is sometimes found on pistachios, but does not cause economic damage but requires treatment. Grape mealybug has four slender white tails. The female Gill’s mealybug has two broad white tails. When poked, adult females of grape mealybug extrude a bright red liquid through structures called ostioles towards both the rear and front of the top of the body. Gill’s mealybug does not extrude such a liquid. Mealybug feeding produces large amounts of honeydew that results in black sooty mold that can reduce photosynthesis. The most common predators of mealybugs in pistachios are brown lacewing and lady beetle whose larva resembles a mealybug. One way to peg problem areas is to check trees before dormancy in the fall and look for sooty mold and leaves and for mealybugs within clusters. Note those locations for further evaluation the following spring.
Wonderful Pistachios & Almonds
Wonderful Pistachios & Almonds is the world’s largest vertically integrated pistachio and almond grower and processor. Located in California’s fertile San Joaquin Valley, Wonderful Pistachios & Almonds owns, cultivates and harvests more than 75,000 acres of pistachio and almond orchards and delivers more than 450 million pounds of nuts globally each year. Our world-class operation supplies both industrial and retail customers, offering high-quality, consistent supply and adherence to rigorous food safety standards. Our nuts can be found in stores nationwide under the flagship retail brands of Wonderful Pistachios and Wonderful Almonds. Our iconic Get Crackin’ campaign has inspired consumers to make healthy choices. Wonderful Pistachios & Almonds is part of The Wonderful Company, a successful, fast-growing privately held $4 billion company with 7,300 employees worldwide. We’ve made Wonderful Pistachios one of America’s top-selling salty snacks. We’ve turned pomegranates and POM Wonderful into a worldwide phenomenon. Wonderful Halos is the No. 1 mandarin orange in America. FIJI Water is the No. 1 premium bottled water in America. JUSTIN Wine produces California’s top-selling luxury Cabernet Sauvignon. And Teleflora is the world’s largest flower delivery service. The Wonderful Company has a long-standing commitment to corporate social responsibility, including more than $100 million invested in environmental technologies and sustainability research, nearly $50 million in charitable giving and education initiatives in 2015 alone, $30 million toward the construction of a new charter school campus in California’s Central Valley, and innovative health and wellness programs.
← صفحه بعد