Rootstock Effects on Pistachio Trees Grown in Verticillium dahliae-Infested Soil
L. Epstein, R. Beede, S. Kaur, and L. Ferguson
Phytopathology: April 2004, Volume 94, Number 4, Pages 388-395
First and third authors: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616; second author: University of California Cooperative Extension Kings County, 680 N Campus Dr., Suite A, Hanford, CA 93230; and fourth author: Department of Pomology, University of California, Davis
In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V. dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V. dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica ‘KAC’ × P. integerrima) hybrid UCBI rootstock grew and yielded as well as those on P. integerrima. Trees on the hybrid PGII yielded the least. Analysis of variance and log-linear models indicate that in soil infested with V. dahliae, three associations significantly affect pistachio nut yield. Rootstock affects scion vigor and extent of infection. Third, the extent of infection and scion vigor are inversely associated. Although trees on the P. integerrima rootstock had the highest ratings in a visual assessment of vigor, 65% were infected with V. dahliae in the trunk in the graft region compared with 73% in P. atlantica and 25% in UCBI. Thus, P. integerrima and UCBI have at least one different mechanism for resistance to V. dahliae.